Four days after Yom Kippur we celebrate the Festival of Sukkot. Because of its
proximity to the Day of Judgment and the uncertainty of the verdict, G-d speaks to
the Jews, ”Come to me and dwell in my presence in this Sukkah and rest assured
that you are forgiven.”
The second mitzvah after building the Sukkah, a temporary dwelling, is the
bringing of the “Four Species.”
“On the fifteenth day of the seventh month when you have gathered in the fruits
of the land, you shall keep the Feast of the Lord seven days. And you shall take
unto yourselves on the first day the fruit of the Hadar tree, branches of palm…”
( Leviticus23:30-40)
The Torah refers to the Etrog as the fruit of a goodly (beautiful) tree because both
the fruit and the tree have a pleasant taste. The Biblical term hadar (beautiful)
can also be interpreted as ha-dar, ”the one that dwells”: the Etrog is one of the
very few fruits that can remain on the tree for several months after it has ripened.