Kiddush (sanctification) is a blessing recited over wine to sanctify the Shabbat, Jewish holidays, and many other ceremonies. The Torah refers to two requirements concerning Shabbat: to “keep it” and to “remember it” (shamor and zachor). Jewish law therefore requires that Shabbat be observed in two respects. One must “keep it” by refraining from thirty-nine forbidden activities, and one must “remember it” by making special arrangements for the day, specifically through the kiddush ceremony. Reciting kiddush before the meal on the eve of Shabbat and Jewish holidays is thus regarded as a commandment from the Torah. Reciting kiddush before the morning meal on Shabbat and holidays, however, is a requirement of rabbinic origin.